Types of pollution- Pollution is the entry of pollutants into the natural environment causing adverse changes. Pollution can take the form of chemicals or energy, such as Noise pollution, Sulphur dioxide and Land pollution, Nitrogen oxide, and Photochemical smog as noise, heat, or light. The pollutants that makeup Pollution can be foreign matter/energy or natural.
|Types of pollution Causes and their effect on the environment|
Type of Pollution
Pollution is the process of contaminating land, water, air, or other parts of the environment that becomes unsafe or unusable. We can do this by introducing the pollutant into the natural environment, but pollution does not have to be tangible. Simple things like light, sound, and temperature can be considered pollutants if they are artificially introduced into the environment.
More than 200 million people worldwide are affected by toxic pollution, according to the nonprofit environmental organization Pure Earth. In some of the world’s most polluted places, babies are born with congenital disabilities and lose 30 to 40 I.Q. points, and cancer and other diseases can shorten life expectancy by as much as 45 years. Read on to find out more about the specific types of contamination.
There are different types of pollution, their causes, And Effects:
All of these can be regularly found in urban areas. The primary sources of pollution causes are household activities, factories productions, agriculture, and transport.
1. What is Water pollution?
Water pollution occurs when toxic pollutants and particulate matter enter water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and seas. These pollutants are usually introduced by human activities such as improper wastewater treatment and oil spills. However, natural processes such as eutrophication can also cause water pollution.
Other important causes of water pollution include:
- Discharge of solid waste into water bodies
- Discharge of untreated industrial wastewater into water bodies
- Human and animal waste
- Agricultural wastewater containing pesticides and fertilizers
The consequences of water pollution are evident in our environment. In addition, toxic chemicals can bioaccumulate living things, and these chemicals can enter the food chain, eventually reaching humans.
Besides other types of pollution, water pollution has more devastating consequences for people. For example, in 1932, due to severe water pollution, residents of an entire city in Japan were disabled for several decades and fell ill with neurological and mental diseases. However, the immediate cause was not clear, but it was ultimately related to acute mercury poisoning. Methyl mercury was discharged into the surrounding stream and bioaccumulated within the fish. Then the local population ate this fish, which led to side effects and neurological diseases.
Other effects of water pollution include:
- Destruction of the ecosystem
- Threat to marine life
- Increased risk of waterborne diseases
- Increases the content of toxic chemicals (such as mercury) in water bodies.
2. What is Air pollution?
Air pollution means the release of harmful pollutants (chemicals, toxic gases, particulate matter, biological molecules, etc.) into the Earth’s atmosphere. These pollutants are pretty dangerous and, in some cases, cause serious health problems.
Some of the factors contributing to air pollution are:
- Burning fossil fuels
- Mining operations
- Gases from industry and factories
The effects of air pollution depend on the type of pollutant. But in general, the consequences of air pollution are as follows:
- Increased risk of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease.
- Increased risk of skin diseases
- It may increase the risk of cancer
- Global warming
- Acid rain
- Gradual ozone depletion
- Wildlife threat
Air pollution is thought to impact the entire planet, among other types of pollution. Scientists also predict an apocalyptic scenario in which air pollution, if left unchecked, could trigger an extreme form of global warming called the runaway greenhouse effect. Although this is purely speculative, this phenomenon has already occurred on Venus.
3. What is Solid waste pollution?
Waste from human or animal activities that remains unwanted and waste is called solid waste. They usually arise from industrial, residential, and commercial activities in the area and can be dealt with in various ways. However, waste can be classified according to paper, plastic, glass, metal, and organic waste. Must manage solid waste disposal must work with reliable disposal systems to ensure the best environmental practices. Solid waste disposal and management is an essential aspect of ecological sanitation and needs to be included in environmental planning.
Examples of solid waste
- Scrap metal
- Demolition waste
- Car scrap
- Electronic equipment
The leading causes of solid waste pollution
The following are some of the main contributors to solid waste pollution:
- Commercial enterprise
- Debris from construction and demolition
- The trash from roads (e.g., asphalt and scrap metal)
- Car scrap
4. What is Noise Pollution?
Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with a wide range of effects on human or animal life, most of which are harmful to some extent. External noise sources worldwide are mainly machines, transport, and diffusion systems. Poor urban planning can lead to noise disturbance or pollution, as well as noise pollution in residential areas from industrial and residential buildings. Some primary noise sources in residential spaces include loud music, traffic (traffic, railroad, airplane, etc.), lawn care, construction, electrical generators, explosions, and people.
Documented noise problems in urban environments date back to ancient Rome. Today, the average noise level of 98 decibels (dB) is above the 50 dB permitted by WHO for residential areas. Research shows that the United States is home to most low-income and racial minority areas, and noise pollution from household power generators is a further environmental degradation in many developing countries.
High noise levels can cause cardiovascular effects and increase the incidence of coronary heart disease in humans. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering the identification and avoidance of predators or prey, interferes with reproduction and navigation, and contributes to permanent hearing loss. A lot of human noise is generated in the ocean. Until recently, much of the research on sound effects has focused on marine mammals and, to a lesser extent, fish.
Over the years, scientists have focused on studying invertebrates and their responses to anthropogenic sounds in the marine environment. This research is necessary, especially given that invertebrates comprise 75% of marine species and a significant percentage of marine food webs. Invertebrate families represent a great variety of studies. Differences exist in the complexity of their sensory systems, which allows scientists to study many features and better understand the impact of anthropogenic noise on living organisms.
CAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION
There are many sources of noise pollution, but here are some of the main ones:
- Traffic noise
- Air traffic noise
- Construction sites
- Catering and nightlife
- Dj sounds
The effects of noise pollution
Constant loud noises not only damage our hearing, causing tinnitus or deafness but can also harm human health in many ways, especially at very young and ancient ages. Here are some of the main ones:
Respiratory movements, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, headache, loud noises, gastritis, colitis, and even heart attack.
Noise can cause stress, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and hysteria in humans and animals.
Sleep and behavior disorders
Noise above 45 dB usually makes it difficult for you to fall asleep or fall asleep. Remember that according to the World Health Organization, it should not exceed 30 dB. Loud sounds can influence our behavior, leading to aggressive behavior and irritability.
Memory and concentration
Noise can affect people’s ability to focus, which can reduce productivity over time. It is also bad for memory, making learning difficult. Interestingly, for two hours of exposure to 100 dB, our ears need more than 16 hours of rest.
5. What is Land Pollution?
Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth’s surface below and at ground level. The reason for this is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste that pollutes groundwater and soil. This waste, often called municipal solid waste (M.S.W.), includes hazardous and non-hazardous waste.
When waste is disposed of on land, the permeability of the soil under the trash can increase or decrease the land’s contamination risk. The higher the permeability of the ground, the more likely it is to contaminate the land. That’s why the Texas Disposal Systems Landfill, located near Austin, Texas, was built in an ideal location. Using natural shale and clay in the ground has significantly reduced land contamination risk.
By the middle of the 20th century, collected solid waste was in an environmentally friendly manner. Before this, waste was usually dumped above the ground in “open dumps,” resulting in debris from rats, mosquitoes, other diseases, and odors and gusts of wind. However, while there are now pretty safe waste disposal methods, many other factors contribute to worsening the situation.
The leading causes of land pollution
While there are many reasons for soil pollution, here are some of the main ones:
Garbage and improper disposal of waste are, unfortunately, everyday things. Every cigarette butt thrown on the ground or food packaging thrown out of the car window is a small contribution to solving a huge problem. According to Keep America Beautiful, 76 percent of the rubbish found on the roads belongs to pedestrians and motorists. However, not all litter is intentional. Hazardous items falling behind vehicles or trash cans also generate large amounts of debris.
Any debris, intentionally or accidentally, causes contamination by releasing chemicals and delicate particulate matter as it decomposes. Check out our blog post to learn more about the impact of garbage and how to reduce it in your community.
Urbanization and Construction
While urbanization is not garbage, living in large quantities, waste generation, and littering in densely populated areas inevitably lead to land pollution. Construction work is underway to accommodate this increased population, generating large amounts of waste such as metals, plastics, wood, and brick. When these materials are not disposed of properly, it contributes to the contamination of the land in the area.
To reduce the environmental impact of construction sites, it is essential to work with partners who provide complete building solutions to implement cost-effective construction material recycling and waste disposal plans.
Mining is the extraction of minerals and other geological materials from the Earth, which are then used for a wide range of purposes, including but not limited to the production of gasoline for automobiles, the generation of electricity, and the sale of materials such as gold and silver. However, this mining and the methods used are depleting the Earth’s natural resources and causing environmental damage and pollution. This is why alternative energy sources (such as solar and wind) not sourced from the Earth’s surface are crucial in reducing pollution on the Earth.
Agriculture is fundamental to both daily life and the economy as a whole. However, it can also have a massive impact on the planet. Agricultural Pollution occurs when pollution created as a by-product of livestock and food crops is released into the environment, which is enormous.
Causes of land pollution
Land pollution affects almost all areas of the living world, including:
- Water not to drink
- Contaminated soil resulting in loss of fertile land for agriculture
- Climate change causing catastrophic problems, including flash floods and intermittent rainfall
- Species crisis and extinction in the wild
- Moving habitats when some animals are forced to flee to where they live to survive
- Increased number of forest fires due to contaminated areas often becoming too arid
- Increased air pollution, which promotes waste incineration
6. What is Thermal Pollution?
Simply put, thermal pollution is caused by pouring hot or cold water into a body of water. Water bodies naturally dissipate the heat of hot streams, underwater hot springs, and the sun. Thermal pollution is so named because it affects the natural temperature regulation mechanism that works in water. Sudden temperature changes pose a health hazard to many aquatic and amphibious organisms.
This article provides an overview of the water supply problem. Thermal pollution usually results from pouring hot water into cold water, but cold water in hot water can also cause problems. This article focuses on hot water sources and the consequences of entering water bodies.
The leading causes of thermal pollution are:
The main factor generating thermal pollution is human and natural factors contributing to the problem of thermal pollution. Perhaps the most significant cause of thermal pollution is the cooling of industrial equipment and power plants. Water is an excellent and free cooling agent. This is why many industrial plants use relatively cold water to cool equipment and pass relatively warm water back into a river, lake, or sea.
The effect of thermal pollution:
The effects of heat pollution vary, but heat pollution damages aquatic ecosystems and diminishes animal populations. Plant species, algae, bacteria, and multicellular animals react differently to significant temperature changes. Organisms that cannot adapt may die for various reasons or may be forced to leave the area. Reproductive problems can further reduce the diversity of life in the contaminated area.
However, heat pollution can be beneficial for some species. Bacteria and algae benefit from excess heat. Some larger animals also need warm water. In Florida, manatees hibernate near power plants using cold water to heat shallow saltwater. In general, thermal pollution is an opposing force for several reasons.
7. What is Radioactive Pollution?
Radioactive pollution occurs when radioactive substances are present or deposited in the atmosphere or atmosphere, especially when their presence is accidental and when it poses a threat to the environment due to radioactive decay. The destruction caused by radioactive substances is caused by releasing hazardous ionizing radiation (radioactive decay), such as beta or alpha particles, gamma rays, or neurons, into the environment in which they are present.
Since substances are characterized by radiation – since the volatility of particles present in radioactive substances is very high, this can seriously affect, change and destroy the life of plants, animals, and humans. The degree of damage or hazard to the environment depends on the concentration of the radioactive material, the energy emitted by the radiation, the proximity of the radioactive material, and the type of radiation. Here is a detailed description of radioactive contamination’s causes, consequences, and solutions.
Causes of Radioactive Pollution
1. Nuclear accidents at nuclear power plants
Various forms of energy are opening up in the postmodern world. Among them is nuclear energy, which is considered the most potent source of energy due to its great latent power. The reports indicate that the high latent power is due to the high level of radiation.
Therefore, its use is prohibited, but research is currently underway to determine its environmental friendliness and to take the most appropriate precautions when using it. However, in some cases and countries, accidents at nuclear power plants, such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster (2011), the Chornobyl disaster (1986), and the Three Mile Island disaster (1979), have claimed many lives and even affected many others. Occurred.
2. Use of nuclear weapons as weapons of mass destruction (W.M.D.)
The use of nuclear missiles and atomic bombs in World War II, a form of nuclear power, explains the cause and the harmful Nature of radioactive contamination or contamination. The aftermath of these two attacks in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which led to the war’s end in 1945, continues to this day in children born with complications such as mental retardation and conditions such as autism and other disorders. Cancer incidence in both cities is higher than in the rest of Japan.
3. Use of radioisotopes
Radioisotopes are used in the manufacture of detectors and other industrial activities. Isotopes are available in uranium to have high concentrations of radiation. On the other hand, common isotopes, such as radioactive materials containing carbon, are easily detected in waterways through sewers.
Since most of the untreated wastewater is not treated before it is discharged, after the discharge, the isotope combines with other compounds and elements present in the water. This is the same water that people bring for domestic needs. In addition, the fish uses the same water to survive. Consuming this fish from contaminated water sources means a possible intake of radiation.
The mining industry mainly involves the extraction of mineral ores, which are then broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces. For example, radium and uranium occur naturally in the environment and are equally radioactive.
Consequently, mining enhances natural geological processes by moving these materials underground to the surface. Other minerals with signs of radiation are thorium, plutonium, radon, potassium, carbon, phosphorus, and sulfur.
5. Leakage of radioactive chemicals
Examples of ocean spills are ship collisions with glaciers or coral reefs and the release of chemicals into waterways and the atmosphere. Most of these chemicals, including petroleum products, contain significant levels of radiation that can harm the environment.
6. Cosmic rays and other natural sources.
They come to our planet from outer space with intense radiation by their Nature, causing radioactive contamination. For example, gamma rays are believed to have the highest level of radiation but depending on their intensity, some are not visible to the human eye. The number of rays hitting the Earth depends on the height and geographic location of the Earth.
Earth’s radiation can come from radioactive elements present in the Earth’s crust. These radioactive elements include potassium 40, radium 224, radon 222, thorium 232, uranium 235, uranium 238, and carbon 14, and they are found in rocks, soil, and water.
Volatile radionuclides can also be broken down into smaller pieces, which emit energetic radiation that can enter the body of organisms through the air during respiration.
7. Production of defensive weapons
The production of defensive weapons that can release radioactivity from radioactive materials usually poses a high health risk. However, current standards do not allow removing any significant amount of radiation unless an accident occurs.
The effect of radioactive Pollution
1. Genetic mutation
Radiation harms genetics. It damages strands of D.N.A., causing genetic breaks over time. The degree of genetic mutation that changes the structure of D.N.A. depends on the radiation level and the exposure type.
Cancer is the most common radiation-related disease. It has evolved over the years and poses a severe health hazard worldwide. Others include cardiovascular complications such as leukemia, anemia, bleeding, premature aging, reduced life expectancy, and premature death. For example, leukemia is caused by radiation from the bone marrow.
3. Soil infertility Fertilization
Exposure to radiation in the atmosphere means it is also present in the soil. Radioactive substances in the soil react with various nutrients, destroying these nutrients and making the soil fertile and highly toxic.
The crops are harvested on soils exposed to radiation and, therefore, unsuitable for human and animal consumption.
4. Destruction of cells.
Radioactive contamination has many effects, such as changes in cells. The bodies of organisms are unique because they contain millions of cells in one body, each with its purpose. Radiation distorts the cells present, causing irreversible damage to various organs and organ systems. In the face of too much radiation, irreversible disease and death are inevitable.
It is not easy to feel the radiation, but it is easy to think it has affected you. The immediate appearance of burning, red ulcers, and ulcers evidence this. Even worse, it can lead to skin cancer.
6. Impact on wildlife
Animals of different levels suffer in different ways. High-level organisms are more affected than insects and flies. When herbivores such as cattle graze on contaminated land, deposits of CE-13 and I-131 accumulate in large quantities on animal tissues.
7. Effects on plants
Plants are also exposed to radiation, and damage is mainly associated with increased ultraviolet waves. Different plants are affected in different ways.
As the radiation increases, the stomata cease to evaporate. When radiation hits the chromosomes, reproduction is disrupted. This leads to a change in the plant’s size, shape, and health. Exposure to high doses destroys affected plants. When we eat these plants, we absorb nuclides.
8. Impact on marine life
Power plants that generate nuclear energy and chemical processing have been dumping radioisotopes into the water for decades. Cesium, radon, krypton, ruthenium, zinc, and copper are some of them. Although waste is thrown away in “permitted” amounts, it is not necessarily safe.
These radionuclides can be found in soft tissues or fish bones. The seaweed used in bread is said to contain the radioisotope ruthenium. All fish shells and fish tissues are contaminated with radionuclides.
8. What is Chemical Pollution?
Chemical Pollution is defined as the presence or increase in the number of chemical pollutants in our environment that are not present in Nature or exceed their natural background values. Most of the chemicals that pollute the environment are created by humans due to various activities in which toxic chemicals are used for different purposes.
Examples of chemical pollutants
Chemical pollutants mainly arise from various human activities such as chemical production, transportation, storage, and disposal. This occurs in industrial areas and businesses such as refineries, coal-fired power plants, construction, mining and metallurgy, transportation, agricultural use of pesticides and insecticides, and domestic activities.
The chemical industry is another example in this sense, mainly because it is usually associated with contaminated waste streams. Waste streams from the chemical industry are now strictly controlled and treated before being released into the environment. But this has not always been the case in the past, and many waste streams from various chemical plants and other industrial sources have polluted many rivers and surface water bodies. Although measures have been taken to reduce this pollution, its effects are still visible.
Household chemicals include many chemicals and mixtures that can quickly become chemical contaminants when released into the environment. Even household detergents contain chemical compounds that can pollute the environment! Please read your detergents’ labels to ensure they include a variety of potentially hazardous chemicals.
Various chemicals can cause the effects of chemical PollquicklyChemical Pollution from different sources. They can include a variety of health consequences, from simple digestive problems to chemical intoxication and sudden death frincludeons. The effects are usually associated with exposure to large amounts of chemicals. Chemical Pollution causes various serious illnesses, usually from eating contaminated food, drinking heavily polluted water, or inhaling highly polluted air.
Chemical intoxication can have serious health consequences that can cause immediate symptoms and illness or delayed effects that can occur weeks or months after exposure. It depends on the type of pollutants and the degree of their vulnerability. Beware, never think everything is in order if the health effects are not immediately noticeable!
Various chemical pollutants can accumulate in water sediments for a long time. This means that if testing is not done, chemical contamination of ocean water can pose a severe risk torientationtem health and ultimately lead to mild or fatal chemical intoxication in humans after eating contaminated fish or seafood. However, you can use prevention tips to reduce your risk of chemical contamination.
9. What is Soil Pollution?
Soil pollution refers to anything that causes soil pollution and reduces its quality. It happens when the pollutants that cause pollution reduce the soil quality and turn it into habitable microorganisms and microorganisms that live in the ground.
Human activities or natural processes can cause soil pollution or soil pollution. However, this is mainly caused by human activity. Soil contamination can occur due to large amounts of chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, ammonia, petroleum hydrocarbons, lead, nitrates, mercury, naphthalene, etc.
Causes of soil pollution
Natural or anthropogenic activities can cause soil pollution. However, this is mainly due to human activities that generate most soil pollution, such as heavy industry or agricultural pesticides.
- Chlorinated Organic toxins
- Inorganic Fertilizers
- Industrial Pollution
- Inferior Irrigation Practices
- Solid Waste
- Urban Activities
Effect of soil pollution
Soil pollution is not only a problem in India but also a global problem. It harms the soil and the environment in general. Soil pollution will reduce agricultural land production. The main consequences of soil pollution are:
- Poor crop quality
- Harmful effects on human health
- Water source pollution
- Negative impacts on ecosystem and biodiversity
10. What is Light Pollution?
Light pollution is excessive, improper, or improper outdoor lighting. Too much light pollution destroys the view of the universe, increases energy consumption, interferes with astronomical research, destroys ecosystems, and affects the health and safety of people and wildlife.
You might be surprised to learn that light pollution can significantly impact the planet in the form of carbon monoxide and other air pollutants.
Causes of Light Pollution
Light pollution is unique in that humans only cause it. There is no natural form of pollution like carbon dioxide. The leading causes of light pollution are:
- Poor Planning
- Irresponsible Use
- Excessive Use of Light
- Smog and Clouds
- Lights from Cars and Other Motor Vehicles
- Streetlamps, Light from Houses, and Garage Lamps
- Downtown Areas
Light pollution effects
While many people ignore light pollution as the price of modern life, it profoundly impacts everything around us.
- Effects on People
- Effects on Animals
- Impact on the Earth and Ecosystem
- Sleeping Problems
- Effects on Traffic
- Air Pollution
- Waste of Resources
11. What is Plastic Pollution?
As the world’s population continues to grow, so does the amount of human waste. The lifestyle on the go requires disposable items like soda cans or water bottles. However, the accumulation of these products has increased the amount of plastic pollution worldwide. Since plastic is made up of major toxic pollutants, it can cause significant environmental damage in the form of air, water, and land pollution.
Simply put, pollution occurs when plastic builds up in a specific area and begins to negatively impact the natural environment and cause problems for plants, wildlife, and even humans. Often this is due to the death of plants and a threat to local animals. Plastic is a restorative material, but it is also composed of toxic compounds known to cause disease. Because it is designed to be durable, it is not biodegradable.
Causes of plastic Pollution
While solving the problem of plastic contamination may seem as simple as recycling or cleaning empty bottles, the truth is that the size of contaminating plastic can range from large to microscopic. The main participants in this problem today are:
- Plain Old Trash
- It is overused
- Plastic takes 400 years and even more to Decompose
- Fishing Nets
- Disposing of Plastic and Garbage
- It’s many a time, Nature Caused
The profound effect of Plastic Pollution
It seems clear that so much material not designed to break down can wreak havoc on the environment, causing long-term problems for plants, animals, and humans. A portion of the significant long-haul impacts of plastic contamination are:
- Adverse Effects on Human Health
- It Upsets the Food Chain
- Groundwater Pollution
- Land Pollution
- Air Pollution
- It Kills Animals
- It is Poisonous
- Cleaning Plastic is Expensive
12. What is Littering pollution?
Garbage, any waste, is thrown away in small quantities, especially where there is none. It builds up over time. This practice is illegal as it costs municipalities millions of dollars annually in cleaning costs. It also leaves a bad picture of the area. Commonly contaminated items include fast food packaging, cigarette butts, used beverage bottles, chewing gum wrappers, broken electrical parts, toys, broken glass, food waste, or green waste.
Various Causes of Littering
- Presence of Litter in an Area
- Construction Projects
- Laziness and Carelessness
- The Belief That There is no Consequence For Littering
- Lack of Trash Receptacles
- Improper Environmental Education
- Low Fines
- Pack Behavior
Serious Problems with Littering
- Can Cause Physical Harm or Injury to People
- It Can Facilitate the Spread of Disease
- Pollutes the Environment
- High Cleanup Costs
- It Affects and Can Kill Wildlife
- Affects Aesthetic Value and Local Tourism
- Increased Probability of Fires
- Breeding Ground for Insects
- Soil Pollution
- Water Pollution
- Air Pollution
13. What is Photochemical Pollution?
Photochemical smog refers to air pollution occurring when the sun’s ultraviolet rays react with nitrogen oxides in the Earth’s atmosphere. In areas with a high level of photochemical smog, there is also a high corrosion rate of metal structures located outside.
Photochemical smog looks like a brown haze and is most noticeable in the morning and afternoon, especially in densely populated hot cities.
Acid rain caused by
Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction in the air that starts when compounds such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. These substances can accumulate in the atmosphere, mixing and reacting with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants called acid rain.
The term “acid rain” was coined by Scottish chemist Robert Angus Smith in 1852, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry, which calls him “the father of acid rain.” Smith coined the term by researching rainwater chemistry near industrial cities in England and Scotland. He wrote about his discoveries in Air and Rain: The Beginning of Chemical Climatology in 1872.
In the 1950s, scientists in the United States began to study the phenomenon. In the 1960s and early 1970s, acid rain was recognized as a regional environmental problem affecting Western Europe and eastern North America.
Although artificial pollutants currently affect most acid rain, natural disasters can also be a factor. For example, volcanoes can cause acid rain, killing contaminants in the air. These pollutants can be carried in jets worldwide and turn into acid rain far from volcanoes.
According to the E.P.A., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted into the air from fossil fuel power plants, cars, and refineries are the leading causes of acid rain today. Two-thirds of the sulfur dioxide and a quarter of the nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere come from power generators.
Effect Of Acid Rain
Acid rain affects almost everything. Plants, soil, trees, buildings, and even sculptures can be transformed by rain.
Acid rain is awful for trees. This weakens them by removing the protective film from the leaves, inhibiting growth. The evidence for acid rain slowing tree growth was presented in a 2005 article published in the online issue of Environmental Science and Technology.
Acid rain can also change the composition of soils and water bodies, making them unsuitable for native animals and plants. For example, in healthy lakes, the pH is 6.5 and higher. As acid rain increases the acidity level, the fish die. According to the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, most fish species cannot survive in water pH below 5. When the pH becomes 4, the lake is almost dead.
Smoke fog, or smog for short, is severe air pollution. The term “smog” was coined in the early 20th century and is a portamento of the words “smoke” and “fog” to denote a smoky fog due to its opacity and odor. The term was then intended to refer to what was sometimes called the pea soup mist, a familiar and serious problem in London from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. This type of visible air pollution consists of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone, smoke, and other particles. Artificial smog arises from emissions from coal combustion, vehicle emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires, and photochemical reactions of these emissions.
Smog is often classified as summer or winter smog. Summer smog is mainly associated with photochemical ozone production. In summer, when temperatures are higher and there is more sunlight, photochemical smog forms the primary type of smog. During the winter months, when temperatures are lower and atmospheric inversions are common, coal and other fossil fuels used to heat homes and buildings increase. These combustion emissions, along with the absence of backward scattering of pollutants, characterize the formation of winter haze. Although photochemical smog is the primary mechanism for the construction of smog during the summer months, episodes of smog are still common in winter. Smog production usually depends on both primary and secondary pollutants. Primary pollutants are emitted directly from the source, such as sulfur dioxide emissions from coal combustion.
Sulfur dioxide (spelling recommended by IUPAC) or sulfur dioxide (traditional English Commonwealth) is a chemical compound with the formula SO. It is a poisonous gas that causes the smell of burnt matches. It is naturally emitted from volcanic activity and is formed as a by-product of copper extraction and the burning of fossil fuels contaminated with sulfur compounds. Sulfur dioxide has a pungent odor similar to that of nitric acid.
Pollution control board
India’s Central Pollution Control Board (C.P.C.B.) is an official organization under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (Mo. E.F.C.C.). It was established in 1974 under the Water (Pollution Prevention and Control) Act 1974. The C.P.C.B. also has powers and functions under the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1981.
It functions as a field unit and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests following the provisions of the 1986 Environmental Protection Act. It coordinates the activities of state pollution control commissions, providing technical assistance and advice, and resolving disputes between them—the country’s leading pollution abatement organization as the technical wing of the MoEFCC. The Board is chaired by a Chairman appointed by the Indian Cabinet Nominating Committee. The current acting chairman is Sri Shiv Das Mina, and the member secretary is Dr. Prashant Gargawa.
C.P.C.B. is headquartered in New Delhi with seven regional offices and five laboratories. The Board conducts environmental impact assessment and research. He is responsible for enforcing national standards following various ecological laws in consultation with regional offices and tribal and local governments. His responsibilities include monitoring water and air quality and maintaining monitoring data. The agency works with industry and governments through various voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
He recommends the central government prevent and control water and air pollution. He also advises the governments of the Union Territories on industrial and other water and air pollution sources. K.P.C.B., together with its counterparts, the State Pollution Control Councils (P.M.C.s), are responsible for implementing legislation related to the prevention and control of environmental pollution.
The main reason behind pollution described above is the vast population of any country. So we have to maintain population by following the guidelines of govt for family planning and maintain the ratio of families and avoid creating pollution to affects our environment.